“Mr. D” is a 20-year-old, first-episode, drug-naïve nonpsychotic MDD patient with symptoms for 1 month (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [Ham-D] score: 25). He refused to take any psychotropic medication because of possible side effects. He just accepted non-pharmacological treatment, such as nutritional and food therapy. After negotiation, he agreed to take SB (500 mg/day) and also signed the informed consent after being notified about the characteristics and side effects of SB. His MDD symptoms improved within the initial 2 weeks of treatment (Ham-D score: 12) and he achieved partial remission after a 6-week therapy with SB (Ham-D score: 9), with residual symptoms of sleep disturbance, anergia, and anhedonia. No intolerable side effects were mentioned during SB therapy. He received structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (3T Siemens Version Scanner housed at magnetic resonance Center, National Yang Ming University) at baseline and the 6th week for the evaluation of brain volume changes after SB treatment. The pulse sequence of MRI scanning was three-dimensional fast-spoiled gradient-echo recovery (3D-FSPGR) T1W1 (TR: 25.30 msec; TE: 3.03 msec; slice thickness: 1 mm(no gap);192 slices; matrix: 224 × 256; field of view: 256 mm; number of excitations: 1). Structural MRI was preprocessed with FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool function (FIRST Version 1.2) of FSL (FMRIB Software Library, Version 4.1.1) to perform subcortical brain segmentation using a shape and appearance model. The subcortical structures include hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, pallidum, lentiform nucleus, caudate, and putamen. The volumes of bilateral thalami, brainstem, and right amygdala increased after a 6-week therapy with SB (Table 1).