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Special Articles   |    
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Interleukin-6 Serum Levels in Acute Stroke
Gianfranco Spalletta, M.D., Ph.D.; Luca Cravello, M.D., Ph.D.; Francesca Imperiale, B.Sc.; Francesca Salani, Ph.D.; Paola Bossù, Ph.D.; Livio Picchetto, M.D.; Marina Cao, M.D., Ph.D.; Maurizia Rasura, M.D.; Floriana Pazzelli, M.D.; Francesco Orzi, M.D.; Carlo Caltagirone, M.D.; Robert G. Robinson, M.D.; Claudia Cacciari, Ph.D.
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2013;25:255-263. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12120399
View Author and Article Information

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

This work was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health (Grants RC05-06-07-08-09-10-11-12).

From the Laboratory of Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy (GS, LC, FS, PB, FP, CC, C.Cacciari), Dept. of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson's Centre) and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS), University “Sapienza”, Umberto I General Hospital, Rome, Italy (FI), NESMOS Dept., University “Sapienza,” Second Faculty of Medicine, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy (LP, MC, MR, FP, FO), Dept. of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy (CC), Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (RGR).

Send correspondence to: Gianfranco Spalletta, M.D., Ph.D.; e-mail: g.spalletta@hsantalucia.it

This paper was presented at the 21st Annual Meeting of the American Neuropsychiatric Association, March 17−20, 2010, Tampa, FL.

Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association

Received December 13, 2012; Revised March 01, 2013; Accepted March 04, 2013.

Abstract

The role of interleukin−6 (IL−6) as a risk factor for developing depressive symptoms, neuropsychological impairment, and related functional and neurological symptom severity during the acute phase of ischemic stroke is still underexplored. Here, the authors assessed this issue, in 48 patients without significant clinical history for major medical illnesses or other factors that promote inflammation, 72 hours after a first-ever acute ischemic stroke. In the acute phase of ischemic stroke, increased IL−6 plays a key role in the onset of depressive disorders, apathy/amotivation, somatic symptoms of depression, and neurological/functional symptoms, resulting in higher disability and poor outcome of stroke patients.

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FIGURE 1. Interleukin–6 Levels (mean ± standard deviation) in Patients With No Depression (NODEP), Minor Depressive Disorder (MiDD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
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TABLE 1.Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of 48 Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke
Table Footer Note

Ham-D: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; Ham-A: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. SD: standard deviation.

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TABLE 2.Interleukin–6 Levels in Patients With and Without Individual Symptoms of DSM-IV–TR Depressive Mood, mean (SD)
Table Footer Note

SD: standard deviation.

Table Footer Note

*Significant after Bonferroni correction.

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TABLE 3.Raw Correlations Among Interleukin–6 Levels and Clinical Characteristics of Patients
Table Footer Note

Ham-D: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; Ham-A: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety.

Table Footer Note

*Statistically significant correlations.

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TABLE 4.Predictors of Interleukin–6 Levels in 48 Patients After Acute Ischemic Stroke
Table Footer Note

Ham-D: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.

Table Footer Note

Coefficient for variables in equation are italicized.

Table Footer Note

a Standard coefficient and (F value).

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