0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Letters   |    
A New Proposal on How Motor Memory Is Consolidated
F. Yavari; F. Towhidkhah
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2013;25:E03-E04. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12080201
View Author and Article Information

Amirkabir University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering Dept
Amirkabir University of Technology
Tehran, Iran

Correspondence: Dr. Yavari; e-mail: fbyavari@gmail.com

Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association

Extract

To the Editor: There are two definitions for motor memory consolidation: 1) stabilization of long-term memory with the passage of time; and 2) off-line learning (i.e., improvement in performance after the training session).1 Computational studies suggest that acquisition of a motor skill is probably obtained through learning an internal model of the dynamics of the task in the brain. It has been proposed that there are two types of internal models: Forward Models (FMs), which enable the CNS to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands, and Inverse Models (IMs), which produce motor commands to achieve a desired state. IMs act as the movement controllers. It is not yet known for certain how and where these models are formed and stored and which neural substrates are involved in motor memory consolidation.

Figures in this Article

First Page Preview

View Large
/>
First page PDF preview
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

+

References

Krakauer  JW;  Shadmehr  R:  Consolidation of motor memory.  Trends Neurosci 2006; 29:58–64
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Imamizu  H;  Miyauchi  S;  Tamada  T  et al:  Human cerebellar activity reflecting an acquired internal model of a new tool.  Nature 2000; 403:192–195
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Wolpert  DM;  Miall  RC;  Kawato  M:  Internal models in the cerebellum.  Trends Cogn Sci 1998; 2:338–347
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Muellbacher  W;  Ziemann  U;  Wissel  J  et al:  Early consolidation in human primary motor cortex.  Nature 2002; 415:640–644
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Stefan  K;  Wycislo  M;  Gentner  R  et al:  Temporary occlusion of associative motor cortical plasticity by prior dynamic motor training.  Cereb Cortex 2006; 16:376–385
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Baraduc  P;  Lang  N;  Rothwell  JC  et al:  Consolidation of dynamic motor learning is not disrupted by rTMS of primary motor cortex.  Curr Biol 2004; 14:252–256
[PubMed]
 
Luft  AR;  Buitrago  MM;  Kaelin-Lang  A  et al:  Protein synthesis inhibition blocks consolidation of an acrobatic motor skill.  Learn Mem 2004; 11:379–382
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Luft  AR;  Buitrago  MM;  Ringer  T  et al:  Motor skill learning depends on protein synthesis in motor cortex after training.  J Neurosci 2004; 24:6515–6520
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Fuster  JM:  Memory in the Cerebral Cortex: An Empirical Approach to Neural Networks in Human and Nonhuman Primates .  Cambridge, MA,  MIT Press, 1995
 
Li  CS;  Padoa-Schioppa  C;  Bizzi  E:  Neuronal correlates of motor performance and motor learning in the primary motor cortex of monkeys adapting to an external force field.  Neuron 2001; 30:593–607
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Hosp  JA;  Luft  AR: Cortical plasticity during motor learning and recovery after ischemic stroke. Neural Plasticity 2011: 1–9
 
Weiner  MJ;  Hallett  M;  Funkenstein  HH:  Adaptation to lateral displacement of vision in patients with lesions of the central nervous system.  Neurology 1983; 33:766–772
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Martin  TA;  Keating  JG;  Goodkin  HP  et al:  Throwing while looking through prisms, I: focal olivocerebellar lesions impair adaptation.  Brain 1996; 119:1183–1198
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Maschke  M;  Gomez  CM;  Ebner  TJ  et al:  Hereditary cerebellar ataxia progressively impairs force adaptation during goal-directed arm movements.  J Neurophysiol 2004; 91:230–238
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Smith  MA;  Shadmehr  R:  Intact ability to learn internal models of arm dynamics in Huntington’s disease but not cerebellar degeneration.  J Neurophysiol 2005; 93:2809–2821
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Lu  X;  Hikosaka  O;  Miyachi  S:  Role of monkey cerebellar nuclei in skill for sequential movement.  J Neurophysiol 1998; 79:2245–2254
[PubMed]
 
Shadmehr  R;  Holcomb  HH:  Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation.  Science 1997; 277:821–825
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Nezafat  R;  Shadmehr  R;  Holcomb  HH:  Long-term adaptation to dynamics of reaching movements: a PET study.  Exp Brain Res 2001; 140:66–76
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Imamizu  H;  Kuroda  T;  Miyauchi  S  et al:  Modular organization of internal models of tools in the human cerebellum.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100:5461–5466
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Brashers-Krug  T;  Shadmehr  R;  Bizzi  E:  Consolidation in human motor memory.  Nature 1996; 382:252–255
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Shadmehr  R;  Brashers-Krug  T:  Functional stages in the formation of human long-term motor memory.  J Neurosci 1997; 17:409–419
[PubMed]
 
Ito  M:  Control of mental activities by internal models in the cerebellum.  Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9:304–313
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container
+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Topic Collections
PubMed Articles