A 14-year-old boy working as a helper in a shop, was brought to us by his mother for complaints of behavioral change over the past 1 month. She reported that he had not been working properly. He would demand money and would go out frequently to watch movies. He would remain outside the home most of the time and talked a lot. He would look more cheerful then before, would not obey family members, and became irritable and angry. His hygiene and grooming also were increased, and he would take three or four baths per day. At home, he would pace here and there. His sleep was markedly decreased, from 7–8 hours before to 3–4 hours, and he did not report any fatigue. There was no past or family history of any psychiatric illness. Mental status examination revealed a restless boy, with increased psychomotor activity, with eye contact established but not maintained. His speech was increased in pitch, tone, and volume. His affect was elated. Flow of thought was increased and revealed ideas of grandiosity. He had no insight into the illness. His higher mental functions were, however, normal. Detailed neurological examination including fundus examination was normal. We made a diagnosis of first-episode mania. Routine hematological investigations including chest X-ray and ECG were normal. He was started on olanzapine 5 mg per day, increased to 10 mg after 5 days.
The patient was followed up after about 10 days, and his mother reported that he was not able to tolerate the medication. He was unduly sedated and would at times pass urine in clothes. Also, now she reported that the patient would have repeated spontaneous jerky movements for a very short period of time. On examination at this time, the patient had myoclonic jerks, and his gait was unsteady. His affect was inappropriate. Olanzapine was stopped. He was further investigated. MRI of the brain revealed multiple areas of hyper intensities in bilateral brain parenchyma on T2-weighted images that were more in the posterior part of cortex. The patient was subsequently referred to a neurologist. Blood tests for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus IgG and IgM were negative. Venereal disease research laboratories (VDRL) slide test was negative. EEG revealed a typical picture of generalized periodic spike and wave formation, with periodicity at every 7 sec. CSF was grossly clear, with normal opening pressure and showed 5 lymphocytes/cm3, protein 20 mg/dl, and sugar 70 mg/dl against a blood glucose of 100 mg/dl. There were elevated anti-measles IgG and IgM anti bodies. A diagnosis of SSPE was made. His condition deteriorated, with increase in frequency of myoclonic jerks with urinary and fecal incontinence over the next 4 weeks. He could not take care of himself and had to be assisted by family members for his daily routine. His gait became progressively unsteady, with frequent falls, as well. He was started on sodium valproate 400 mg per day along with clonazepam 1 mg per day. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up.