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Letters   |    
A Parameter Selection for Differentiating Between Healthy and Parkinsonian Gait Through Modeling Parkinson's Disease From a Chaotic Viewpoint
Masood Banaie; Mohammad Pooyan; Yashar Sarbaz; Shahriar Gharibzadeh; Farzad Towhidkhah
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:E22-E22.
View Author and Article Information

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

correspondence: banaie@gmail.com

To the Editor: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is the most common disease after Alzheimer's disease among neurological diseases. Destruction of the substantia nigra pars compacta of basal ganglia (BG) is the cause of the disease. The exact cause of this destruction is not yet known.1 Gait disorder is one of the cardinal symptoms of PD. The gait disorder in PD patients includes slowed gait, shortened length of stride, decreased rhythm and cadence, increased time of double support in the stance phase, shuffling and festinating gait, decreased swing of the arms, and disturbed regulation of the stride length. Five-minute walking can exhibit the disturbances in patients as compared with normal persons.1,2 Researchers have focused from different perspectives on PD, some of which are: introducing animal models, introducing conceptual models, presenting cognitive symptoms, and finding novel treatments such as drugs and deep brain stimulation (DBS).35 As studies shown, we can understand two main points about the brain and PD:

Considering the two facts, we propose to model the basal ganglia, using a black-box model that is obtained from one of the well-known chaotic relations so called “sin Circle Map.” We tried to model the disease using the recurrent relation (sin Circle Map) adding some other parameters to the equation, to increase its capability to model the disease. We used the recordings available in the Physionet6 to obtain the model parameters for each of the recordings. Our primary unpublished simulations showed that the range of variability of Omega (Ω) is considerably different in the two groups (healthy versus parkinsonian). Omega (Ω) is the main parameter in the model, and the rest of the system can be based on it.7 Therefore, we think that this parameter is the main factor for the model to show the state of the system (BG), and it can be used for proposing treatments for the disease.

Factor  SA;  Weiner  WJ:  Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis and Clinical Management, 2nd Edition,  New York,  Demos Medical Publishing, 2008
 
Murray  MP:  Studies of normal and abnormal locomotion.  Int J Rehabil Res 1979; 2:510–511
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Volpato  C;  Signorini  M;  Meneghello  F  et al:  Cognitive and personality features in Parkinson disease: two sides of the same coin? Cogn Behav Neurol 2009; 22:258–263
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Henry  V;  Paille  V;  Lelan  F  et al:  Kinetics of microglial activation and degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.  J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2009; 68:1092–1102
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Baev  KV:  A new conceptual understanding of brain function: basic mechanisms of brain-initiated normal and pathological behaviors.  Crit Rev Neurobiol 2007; 19:119–202
[PubMed]
 
Hilborn  RC:  Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamic, 2nd Edition.  New York,  Oxford University Press, 2000
 
References Container
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References

Factor  SA;  Weiner  WJ:  Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis and Clinical Management, 2nd Edition,  New York,  Demos Medical Publishing, 2008
 
Murray  MP:  Studies of normal and abnormal locomotion.  Int J Rehabil Res 1979; 2:510–511
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Volpato  C;  Signorini  M;  Meneghello  F  et al:  Cognitive and personality features in Parkinson disease: two sides of the same coin? Cogn Behav Neurol 2009; 22:258–263
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Henry  V;  Paille  V;  Lelan  F  et al:  Kinetics of microglial activation and degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.  J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2009; 68:1092–1102
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Baev  KV:  A new conceptual understanding of brain function: basic mechanisms of brain-initiated normal and pathological behaviors.  Crit Rev Neurobiol 2007; 19:119–202
[PubMed]
 
Hilborn  RC:  Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamic, 2nd Edition.  New York,  Oxford University Press, 2000
 
References Container
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