0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

REGULAR ARTICLES   |    
Impulsiveness in Professional Fighters
Sarah J. Banks, Ph.D.; Brittany Mayer, B.A.; Nancy Obuchowski, Ph.D.; Wanyong Shin, Ph.D.; Mark Lowe, Ph.D.; Michael Phillips, M.D.; Michael Modic, M.D.; Charles Bernick, Ph.D.
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2014;26:44-50. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12070185
View Author and Article Information

From the Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, the University of Nevada Las Vegas, and the Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology.

Send correspondence to Dr. Banks; e-mail: bankss2@ccf.org

Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association

Received July 27, 2012; Revised December 20, 2012; Accepted January 18, 2013.

Abstract

Sports involving repeated head trauma are associated with risk of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Among the behavioral manifestations of CTE is increased impulsiveness. Here, the authors investigate the relationship between impulsiveness and exposure to head trauma in a large group of active professional fighters. Fighters tended to report less impulsiveness than did non-fighting control respondents. Overall, greater fight exposure was associated with higher levels of a specific form of impulsiveness, although there were differences between mixed martial arts fighters and boxers. Fight exposure was associated with reduction in volume of certain brain structures, and these changes were also associated with impulsiveness patterns. Longitudinal studies of professional fighters are important to understand the risk for neuropsychiatric problems.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Topics

impulsivity ; brain
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

FIGURE 1. Distribution of BIS II Total and Subscores in Boxers and MMA Fighters

Scores are displayed as Z scores based on healthy subjects’ scores reported in Stanford et al., 2009.

BIS II: MMA: mixed martial arts.

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 1.Fight Exposure Summary Statistics for the Study Participants, mean (range)
Anchor for Jump
TABLE 2.BIS II Summary Statistics for the Study Participants
Table Footer Note

Mean scores adjusted for age, race, and education.

Table Footer Note

BIS II: Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, II.

+

References

Moeller  FG;  Barratt  ES;  Dougherty  DM  et al:  Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity.  Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158:1783–1793
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Mendez  MF:  The neuropsychiatric aspects of boxing.  Int J Psychiatry Med 1995; 25:249–262
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Omalu  BI;  Bailes  J;  Hammers  JL  et al:  Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, suicides, and parasuicides in professional American athletes: the role of the forensic pathologist.  Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2010; 31:130–132
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bernick  C;  Banks  SJ;  Mahmoud  S  et al:  The threshold effect of repeated head trauma on brain .  New Orleans, LA,  American Academy of Neurology, 2012
 
Corsellis  JA;  Bruton  CJ;  Freeman-Browne  D:  The aftermath of boxing.  Psychol Med 1973; 3:270–303
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Frank  MJ;  Samanta  J;  Moustafa  AA  et al:  Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism.  Science 2007; 318:1309–1312
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Winstanley  CA;  Theobald  DE;  Cardinal  RN  et al:  Contrasting roles of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice. J Neurosci 2004; 24:4718–4722
 
Bernick  C;  Banks  SJ;  Obuchowski  N  et al:  Professional Fighters Brain Health Study: Rationale and Methods.  Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178:280–287
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Fischl  B;  Salat  DH;  Busa  E  et al:  Whole brain segmentation: automated labeling of neuroanatomical structures in the human brain.  Neuron 2002; 33:341–355
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Stanford  MS;  Mathias  CW;  Dougherty  DM  et al:  Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: an update and review.  Pers Indiv Diff 2009; 47:385–395
[CrossRef]
 
Rochat  L;  Beni  C;  Billieux  J  et al:  Assessment of impulsivity after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.  Neuropsychol Rehabil 2010; 20:778–797
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Antonucci  AS;  Gansler  DA;  Tan  S  et al:  Orbitofrontal correlates of aggression and impulsivity in psychiatric patients.  Psychiatry Res 2006; 147:213–220
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container
+
+

CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 51.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 34.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4th Edition > Chapter 10.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 35.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 34.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles