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Neuropsychological performance, mood, and complaints of cognitive and motor difficulties in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1993;5:86-93.
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Seventy-nine military medical beneficiaries infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) and 27 HIV-seronegative control subjects (HIV-) completed a neuropsychological evaluation and a semistructured interview inquiring about difficulties in function. More HIV+ than HIV- subjects reported difficulties. HIV+ subjects reporting difficulties were significantly more likely to be deficient on attention, response speed, motor function, and memory than those not reporting difficulties. Findings for early-stage HIV+ subjects were similar. HIV+ individuals who complained of difficulties reported depression and anxiety symptoms significantly more frequently than those who did not complain, but these symptoms were not related to neuropsychological performance. Complaints of difficulties by HIV+ individuals may reflect either actual neuropsychological deficiency or mood disturbance, but the effects of each appear to be independent.

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