This pilot study compared characteristics of obsessive-compulsive (OC) schizophrenic patients and a matched non-OC schizophrenic control group. The OC-schizophrenic group required more intensive clinical interventions and had a poorer clinical course, lower levels of functioning, and longer periods of hospitalization. They showed greater negative symptoms and more impaired executive functioning. These findings suggest OC-schizophrenic patients may have an atypical set of clinical and neuropsychiatric characteristics, perhaps constituting a subgroup within the schizophrenia spectrum. Pathophysiology and possible treatment implications require further study.