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Anxiety and Depression Are Better Correlates of Parkinson’s Disease Quality of Life Than Apathy
Jacob D. Jones, M.S.; London C. Butterfield, Ph.D.; Woojin Song, Ph.D.; Jacob Lafo, B.A.; Paul Mangal, B.S.; Michael S. Okun, M.D.; Dawn Bowers, Ph.D.
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2014;:. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.13120380
View Author and Article Information

From the Dept. of Clinical and Health Psychology (JDJ, LCB, JL, PM, DB), Dept. of Neurology (MSO, DB), and Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; and Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (WS).

Send correspondence to: Dawn Bowers, Ph.D.; e-mail: dawnbowers@phhp.ufl.edu

Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association

Received December 19, 2013; Revised January 31, 2014; Accepted February 05, 2014.

Abstract

Due to controversy regarding the influence of apathy on quality of life (QoL), the authors examined the independent influence of apathy, depression, and trait anxiety in a nondemented sample of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Participants (N=107) completed standard self-report measures of QoL and mood/motivation. Analyses investigated the contribution of these measures and empirically derived factor scores on QoL. QoL was predicted by trait anxiety, dysphoria, and decreased interest, with no independent contribution of apathy. Different patterns emerged with respect to domain-specific QoL, with trait anxiety being the strongest predictor across most domains. Anxiety was most widely related to QoL in PD, with minimal contribution of apathy. Future studies should examine different roles of PD mood/motivation symptoms on caregiver QoL.

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TABLE 1.Sample Characteristics
Table Footer Note

DRS: Dementia Rating Scale; UPDRS: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale.

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TABLE 2.Descriptives of Mood Questionnaires and PDQ-39
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ADL: activity of daily living; BDI-II: Beck Depression Inventory-II; PDQ: Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39; STAI: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

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TABLE 3.Correlations Between Mood Symptom Severity (Total Scores)
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AS: Apathy Scale.

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TABLE 4.Correlations Among Mood Symptom Severity (Factor Scores)
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TABLE 5.Stepwise Regression Analyses Evaluating the Contribution of Mood Factors on QoL
Table Footer Note

Only significant predictors shown. QoL: quality of life.

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