Despite great progress in the neurosciences, our understanding of the
determinants of sexual orientation is incomplete. The authors review for
the clinician/neuropsychiatrist studies pertaining to the formation of
sexual orientation in the following areas: hormone effects on sexual
behavior (animal and human); the complicated relationship between gender
identity, gender role, and sexual orientation in humans; cross- cultural
studies of homosexuality; behavioral observations in pseudohermaphrodites
and offspring of mothers treated with hormones during pregnancy; brain
studies of homosexual and heterosexual individuals; and genetic studies.
The authors conclude that human sexual orientation is complex and diversely
experienced and that a biopsychosocial model best fits the current state of
knowledge in the field.